We present a multi-year high-resolution spatial data set on snow cover evolution in a catchment located in South-West Spitsbergen on Svalbard. The data set has significant potential for validation of satellite-derived snow extent (SE) products and provides unique baseline information for various studies in this high-Arctic setting. An automatic camera system was set near the summit of Fugleberget, overlooking an area of several square kilometers near the Hornsund Polish Polar Station. In total, 203 images obtained during three spring and summer seasons were orthorectified and georeferenced using a Matlab-based toolbox, followed by a GIS-based classification of the snow-covered area at a spatial scale of 0.72 km². The results allow for a precise quantification of the snow-covered area in daily resolution over the entire ablation period. In the studied Fuglebekken catchment, the highest rate of snow disappearance was observed in late May/early June. ** For all details see the full metadata description at "https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.874387"! ** Data obtained from the Polish Polar Station Hornsund monitoring program. Automatic camera systems was funded by SMACS (project no. 236768 / E10; Svalbard Science Forum, Research Council of Norway).
On Svalbard, the long-lasting snow cover and the timing of the snowmelt is a crucial factor in the yearly cycle of all land ecosystems. To monitor the timing and patterns of snow melt, automatic camera systems have been set up at three locations overlooking key research areas near Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. All images are provided in daily resolution, and the date coded in the filename as yyyy-MM-dd. This work was funded by SMACS (project no. 236768 / E10; Svalbard Science Forum, Research Council of Norway). ** For all details see the full metadata description at "https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.846617"!
Most permafrost is located in the Arctic, where frozen organic carbon makes it an important component of the global climate system. Despite the fact that the Arctic climate changes more rapidly than the rest of the globe, observational data density in the region is low. Permafrost thaw and carbon release to the atmosphere are a positive feedback mechanism that can exacerbate climate warming. This positive feedback functions via changing land-atmosphere energy and mass exchanges. There is thus a great need to understand links between the energy balance, which can vary rapidly over hourly to annual time scales, and permafrost, which changes slowly over long time periods. This understanding thus mandates long-term observational data sets. Such a data set is available from the Bayelva Site at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, where meteorology, energy balance components and subsurface observations have been made for the last 20 years. Additional data include a high resolution digital elevation model and a panchromatic image. This paper presents the data set produced so far, explains instrumentation, calibration, processing and data quality control, as well as the sources for various resulting data sets. The resulting data set is unique in the Arctic and serves a baseline for future studies. Since the data provide observations of temporally variable parameters that mitigate energy fluxes between permafrost and atmosphere, such as snow depth and soil moisture content, they are suitable for use in integrating, calibrating and testing permafrost as a component in Earth System Models. The data set also includes a high resolution digital elevation model that can be used together with the snow physical information for snow pack modeling. ** For all details see the full metadata description at "https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.880120"!